Canary Deployments with Gloo Function Gateway using Weighted Destinations

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This is the 3rd post in my 3 part series on doing Canary Releases with Solo.io Gloo.

This post will show a different way of doing Canary release by using weighted routes to send a fraction of the request traffic to the new version (the canary). For example, you could initially route 5% of your request traffic to your new version to validate that its working correctly in production without risking too much if your new version fails. As you gain confidence in your new version, you can route more and more traffic to it until you cut over completely, i.e. 100% to new version, and decommission the old version.

All of the Kubernetes manifests are located at https://github.com/scranton/gloo-canary-example. I’d suggest you clone that repo locally to make it easier to try these example yourself. All command examples assume you are in the top level directory of that repo.

Review

Quickly reviewing the previous 2 posts, we learned that Gloo can help with function level routing, and that routing can be used as part of a Canary Release process, that is slowly testing a new version of our service in an environment. In the last post, we used Gloo to create a special routing rule to our new version that only forwarded on requests that included a specific request header. That allows us to deploy our new service into production, while only allowing request traffic from specific clients, i.e. clients that know to set that specific request header. Once we got confident that our new version was working as expected, we then changed the Gloo routing rules so that all request traffic went to the new service. This is a great way to validate that our new deployment is correctly configured in our environment before sending any important traffic to it.

In this post, we’re going to expand on that approach with a more sophisticated pattern - weighted routes. With this capability we can route a percentage of the request traffic to one or more functions. This enhances our previous header based approach as we can now validate that our new service can handle a managed load of traffic, and as we gain confidence we can route higher loads to the new version till its handling 100% of the request traffic. If at any point, we see errors we can either rollback 100% of traffic to the original working version OR debug our service to better understand why it started to have problems handling a faction of our target load, which in theory should help us fix our new service version quicker.

You can always combine both the header routing and weighted destination routing, and other routing options Gloo provides.

Setup

This post assumes you’ve already run thru the Canary Deployments with Gloo Function Gateway post, and that you’ve already got a Kubernetes environment setup with Gloo. If not, please refer back to that post for setup instructions and the basics of VirtualServices and Routes with Gloo.

By the end of that post, we had 100% of findPets function traffic going to our petstore-v2 service, and the other functions going to the original petstore-v1. Let’s validate our services before we make any changes.

export PROXY_URL=$(glooctl proxy url)
curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPets

The call to findPets should have been routed to petstore-v2, which should return the following result.

[{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"},{"id":2,"name":"Cat","status":"v2"},{"id":3,"name":"Parrot","status":"v2"}]

And calls to findPetWithId should route to petstore-v1, which only has 2 pets (Dog & Cat) each with a status of available and pending respectively (versus status of v2 for petstore-v2 responses).

curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPetWithId/1
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPetWithId/2
{"id":2,"name":"Cat","status":"pending"}
curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPetWithId/3
{"code":404,"message":"not found: pet 3"}                                                                                                                                                                                             

So let’s play with doing a Canary Release with weighted destinations to migrate the findPetWithId function.

Setting up Weighted Destinations in Gloo

Let’s start by looking at our existing, virtual service coalmine

kubectl get virtualservice coalmine --namespace gloo-system --output yaml
apiVersion: gateway.solo.io/v1
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: coalmine
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  displayName: coalmine
  virtualHost:
    domains:
    - '*'
    name: gloo-system.coalmine
    routes:
    - matcher:
        prefix: /findPets
      routeAction:
        single:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPets
              parameters: {}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v2-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
    - matcher:
        prefix: /findPetWithId
      routeAction:
        single:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPetById
              parameters:
                headers:
                  :path: /findPetWithId/{id}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v1-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
    - matcher:
        prefix: /petstore
      routeAction:
        single:
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v1-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
      routePlugins:
        prefixRewrite:
          prefixRewrite: /api/pets/

To create a weighted destination, we need to change the routeAction from single to multi and provide 2+ destination, which are destinationSpec with weight. For example, to route 10% of request traffic to findPetWithId to petstore-v2 and the remaining 90% to petstore-v1.

kubectl apply -f coalmine-virtual-service-part-3-weighted.yaml

Here’s the relevant part of the virtual service manifest showing the weighted destination spec.

coalmine-virtual-service-part-3-weighted.yaml view raw
  routeAction:
    multi:
      destinations:
      - destination:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPetById
              parameters:
                headers:
                  :path: /findPetWithId/{id}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v2-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
        weight: 10
      - destination:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPetById
              parameters:
                headers:
                  :path: /findPetWithId/{id}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v1-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
        weight: 90
- matcher:

Let’s run a shell loop to test, remember that petstore-v2 responses have a status field of v2. The following command will call our function 20 times, and we should see ~2 responses (~10%) return with "status":"v2".

COUNTER=0
while [ $COUNTER -lt 20 ]; do
    curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPetWithId/1
    let COUNTER=COUNTER+1
done
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}

Now if we want to increase the traffic to our new version, we just need to update the weight attibutes in the 2 destination objects. Gloo sums all of the weight values within a given weighted destination route, and routes the respective percentage to each destination. So if we set both route weights to 1 then each route would get 1/2 or 50% of the request traffic. I’d recommend setting the values with a sum of 100 so they look like percentages for greater readability. The following example will update our routes to do 50/50 traffic split.

kubectl apply -f coalmine-virtual-service-part-3-weighted-50-50.yaml
coalmine-virtual-service-part-3-weighted-50-50.yaml view raw
  routeAction:
    multi:
      destinations:
      - destination:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPetById
              parameters:
                headers:
                  :path: /findPetWithId/{id}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v2-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
        weight: 50
      - destination:
          destinationSpec:
            rest:
              functionName: findPetById
              parameters:
                headers:
                  :path: /findPetWithId/{id}
          upstream:
            name: default-petstore-v1-8080
            namespace: gloo-system
        weight: 50
- matcher:

And if we run our test loop again, we should see about 10 of the 20 requests returning "status":"v2.

COUNTER=0
while [ $COUNTER -lt 20 ]; do
    curl ${PROXY_URL}/findPetWithId/1
    let COUNTER=COUNTER+1
done
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"available"}
{"id":1,"name":"Dog","status":"v2"}

Summary

This series has hopefully given you all a taste of how Solo.io Gloo can help you create more interesting applications, and also enhance your application delivery approaches. These posts have shown how to do function level request routing, and how you can enhance those routing rules by requiring presence of request headers and doing managed load balancing by specifying the percentage of traffic going to individual upstream destinations. Gloo supports many more options, and I hope you’ll continue your journey by going to https://gloo.solo.io to learn more.